Origin is in Our Lord’s instruction to baptize. (Matthew 28:19)
In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti.
In the name of the Spirit, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
Signum (noun, f., nom. 2nd decl.
Crucis (noun, f., gen., 3rd decl.
nomine (noun, n., abl., 3rd decl.)
Patris (noun, m. gen, 3rd decl.)
Filii (noun, m., gen,, 2nd decl.)
Spiritus (noun, m., gen., 4th decl.)
Sancti (adj, gen., 1st decl.)
Signum (Sign, signal)
Noun, n. 2nd decl.
Nom. signum / signa
Gen. signi / signorum
Dat. signo / signis
Acc. signum / signa
Abl. signo / signis
Voc. signum / signa
Noun, f. 3rd decl.
Nom. crux / cruces
Gen. crucis / crucem
Dat. cruci / crucibus
Acc. crucem / cruces
Abl. cruce / crucibus
Voc. crux / cruces
The preposition “in” can take either an
accusative noun (into, onto, towards, against) or
ablative noun (in, on, among, at, within, in relation to (a person)
Noun, n., 3rd decl.
Nom. nomen / nomina
Gen. nominis / nominum
Dat. nomini / nominibus
Acc. nomen / nomina
Abl. nomine / nominibus
Voc. nomen / nomina
Noun, m., 3rd decl.
Nom. pater / patares
Gen. patris / patrum
Dat. patri / patribus
Acc. patrem / patres
Abl. patre / patribus
Voc. pater / patres
Noun, m., 2nd decl.
Nom. filius / filii
Gen. filii / filiorum
Dat. filio / filiis
Acc. filium / filios
Abl. filio / filiis
Voc. fili / filii
Spiritus (Spirit, breath)
Noun, m., 4th decl.
Nom. spiritus / spiritus
Gen. spiritus / spirituum
Dat. spiritui / spiritibus
Acc. spiritum / spiritus
Abl. spiritu / spiritibus
Voc. spiritus, / spiritus
Adjective, 1st decl.
Nom. sanctus / sancta / sanctum
Gen. sancti / sanctae / sancti
Dat. sancto / sanctae / sancto,
Acc. sanctum / sanctam / sanctum
Abl. sancto / sancta / sancto
Voc. sancte / sancta / sanctum
Nom. sancti / sanctae / sancta
Gen. sanctorum / sanctorum / sanctorum
Dat. sanctis / sanctis / sancctis
Acc. sanctos / sanctas / sancta
Abl. sanctis / sanctis / sanctis
Voc. santi / sanctae / sancta
Totus tuus ego sum
All yours I am
et omnia mea tua sunt.
and all mine yours are.
Esse (to be) is used twice.
Since Esse is such a common verb, we will be conjugating this verb in some depth.
sum, es, est,
sumus, estis, sunt
fui , fuisti, fuit
fuimus, fuistis, fuerunt
Ora pro nobis
Pray for us
Sancta Dei Genetrix.
Holy of-God Mother.
In nomine Patris,
In name of-Father,
et Spiritus Sancti.
and of-Spirit Holy.
Benedicta tu in mulieribus
Blessed you among women
fructus ventris tui, Iesus
fruit of-womb your, Jesus
Sancta Maria, Mater Dei
Holy Mary, Mother of-God
ora pro nobis peccatoribus
pray for us sinners
nunc et in hora mortis nostrae.
now and in hour of-death our.
Illustration: Cluny Museum, 15th c. stained glass, Flickr Miltonmic, www.flickr.com/photos/miltonmic/23205433
Pater Noster--Our Father
qui es in caelis,
who are in heaven
sanctificetur nomen tuum.
May it be sanctified name your.
This is not an exhaustive lesson in grammar.
These are just the bare bones to help us dive more deeply into the meaning of our prayers and the Latin Mass.
Immersing ourselves in the language of the early church will help us on our spiritual journey and communion with the Lord.
Latin is a very expressive language and can convey an entire thought with a single word.
In English word order is important for determining meaning.
Latin, being an inflected language, uses suffixes for much of the meaning.
Suffixes provide the following information:
Gender (masculine, feminine or neuter)
Number (singular or plural)
Case (6 cases, case shows noun’s function)
Nominative (nom., subject of the verb)
Genitve (gen., possessor of another noun, ownership)
Dative (dat., indirect object of the verb, recipient of direct object)
Accusative (acc., direct object of the verb)
Ablative (abl., adverbial use)
Vocative (voc., direct address)
Most of the above is embedded in the suffix. (Gender is sometimes arbitrary.)
Declension is the key to understanding gender, number and case of nouns. (Except for irregular ones)
Latin nouns have 5 declensions, each with its own set or pattern of case endings.
1st Declension--ae (gen.)
Lacrima, -ae means tear, tears.
Lacrima belongs to first declension of pattern endings.
First declension endings are built around “a”.
First declension nouns are generally feminine.
The First declension genitive singular always ends in “ae”.
Gen. Lacrimae (Drop the genitive ending to get the stem, Lacrim)
Latin dictionary entry for a noun (lacrima) includes the
Nominative (subject of verb) singular form–lacrima
Genitive singular form–lacrimae
Voice (active or passive, performing or undergoing)
Mood (relationship between action of verb and reality)
Latin is compact. “I am singing” in Latin is “Canto”.
The verb contains the action and who is doing the action.
The suffix (personal ending) of the verb shows who is doing the action.
A Latin dictionary shows four main forms (principal parts) of the verb, from which all forms of the verb can be made.
Present, active, first person–Amo
Perfect, active, first person–Amavi
The suffix/ending shows the characteristics (person, number, tense, voice, mood) of the verb.
Drop the -re ending of the infinitive to get root of the verb.
Latin verbs have mainly 4 conjugations. The conjugation pattern can often be determined from the infinitive ending. ( -are, -ere, -ere, -ire)
amo (I love)
amas (you love)
amat (3rd person loves)
amamus (we love)
amatis (you love)
amant (they love)
amavi (I loved, have loved)
amavisti (you loved)
amavit (3rd person loved)
amavimus (we loved)
amavistis (you loved)
amabam (I was loving)
amabas (you were loving)
amabat (3rd person was loving)
amabamus (we were loving)
amabatis (you were loving)
amabant (they were loving)
This website and the links to videos helping with pronunciation will be using the ecclesiastical pronunciation, which is slightly softened, as opposed to classical pronunciation.